Towards Supporting Dialogic Feedback Processes Using Learning Analytics: the Educators’ Views on Effective Feedback


  • Hua Jin Monash University
  • Roberto Martinez-Maldonado
  • Tongguang Li
  • Philip Wing Keung Chan
  • Yi-Shan Tsai



learning analytics, feedback literacy, dialogic feedback, traceability, feedback impact


Feedback plays a crucial role in learning. Yet, higher education continues to face challenges regarding facilitating effective feedback processes. One of the challenges is the difficulty to track how students interact with feedback and the impact of feedback on learning outcomes. Learning analytics (LA) has opened up opportunities to enhance feedback practice with a wide array of data. However, most research seeks to deliver data-driven feedback rather than understanding how students make use of feedback and how educators can use learning analytics to support students in this process. As a first step to address this gap, our study investigated educators’ views of challenges and elements of effective feedback processes in addition to their perceptions of data-driven feedback. The study found that feedback design (e.g., feedback purpose, content, and structure), educator-related factors (e.g., time constraints and resource limitations), and student-related factors (e.g., disposition, self-regulation, and sense-making) can have positive or negative impacts on the feedback process. It also highlights the need for the development of student feedback literacy. Based on the findings, we proposed ideas for an LA-based feedback tool that can be used to facilitate a dialogic feedback process and address challenges with feedback.